SAIR 20:Cramond Roman Fort: evidence from excavations at Cramond Kirk Hall, 1998 and 2001
by Paul Masser
with contributions by Jeremy Evans, Mhairi Hastie and Fraser Hunter
Headland Archaeology, 13 Jane Street, Edinburgh EH6 5HE
Published in June 2006 by The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, in association with The Council for British Archaeology and Historic Scotland, in Adobe Acrobat format. Available free of charge (see Terms & Conditions of Use).
Excavation on the site of an extension to Cramond Kirk Hall has provided new evidence for the layout of the defences of the Roman fort, the route of the road immediately beyond it and for the phases of Roman military occupation at Cramond postulated by previous excavators. The features encountered included a broad right-angled ditch, possibly part of the outer defences, turning at this point to run parallel with the road into the fort. Three much slighter parallel ditches or gullies at the south end of the site are tentatively identified as drainage features beside the Roman road which, on this interpretation, would lie just beyond the limit of excavation. At a later date, the ditch had been allowed to silt up and features including pits and a stone box-drain were cut on a different alignment, through the fill of the earlier ditch; a well was also cut across two of the roadside ditches. These later features appear to represent encroachment of extramural settlement on the defences during the Severan occupation, at a time when a large defended annexe had been constructed to the east of the fort.
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|Table of Contents|
|List of Illustrations|
|List of Tables|
|3||Existing Evidence for the Layout and History of the Fort|
|4||Results of the Excavation|
|4.1 Features pre-dating the fort defences|
|4.2 The defensive ditch|
|4.3 The road|
|4.4 Later developments: disuse of the ditch and encroachment of the extramural settlement|
|5||The Pottery by Jeremy Evans with contributions by Margaret Ward and D F Williams|
|5.3 Functional analysis|
|5.5 Selective catalogue (including numbered sherds)|
|6||Other Finds by Fraser Hunter|
|6.1 Iron objects|
|6.1.1 Fittings and fastenings|
|6.1.2 Tools and weapons|
|6.1.5 Hobnails and tacks|
|6.2 Copper-alloy objects|
|6.3 Lead objects|
|7||Plant Remains by Mhairi Hastie|
|7.1.1 Sample strategy and processing|
|7.1.2 Sample assessment|
|7.3.1 Roman features|
|7.3.2 Medieval features|
|7.3.3 Features of unknown date|
Published by The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, in association with The Council for British Archaeology and Historic Scotland, in Adobe Acrobat format. Available free of charge (see Terms & Conditions of Use).
Use http://www.sair.org.uk/ to cite this page.
Page last modified by Seren Langley (firstname.lastname@example.org) on Thursday 8 June 2006.